Long Form of Periodic Table – Structure, Details and Numeric Values

The modern periodic table, or the long form of the periodic table, are positioned in ascending order of the atomic numbers. This table is more accurate, and the prediction of the elements and their compounds can be made more exact. Also, this table can fix the limitations of Mendeleev’s periodic table.

Structure of the Modern Periodic Table

The long form of periodic table consists of,

  • 18 vertical columns known as groups
  • 7 horizontal rows known as periods.

Elements having the same electronic configuration are placed in the same group. Hydrogen could not be placed in the appropriate position in Mendeleev’s Periodic Table, which is fixed on the long form of the periodic table. Also, there were new elements yet to be discovered. Let’s look at the structure of the Long form of periodic table.

long form of the modern periodic table

Neil Bohr is the scientist who proposed the long form of the Periodic Table. The long form of the periodic table is based on the atom’s atomic number, and hydrogen is the first element in the table.

The first period is the shortest in the periodic table with H and He elements, whereas the sixth period is from Cs to Rn and is the longest period.

Values of Elements in the Long form of Periodic Table

The long form of the periodic table based on the atomic number is given below. The table consists of elements and their Name, Atomic Number, Symbol, Atomic Mass, Electron Configuration, Electronegativity, Atomic Radius (Van der Waals radius), Ionization Energy, Electron Affinity, Oxidation States, Standard State, Melting Point, Boiling Point, Density Group Block, Year Discovered.

Atomic NumberSymbolNameAtomic MassElectron ConfigurationElectronegativityAtomic Radius (Van der Waals radius)Electron AffinityOxidation StatesIonization EnergyStandard StateMelting PointBoiling PointDensityGroup BlockYear Discovered
1HHydrogen1.008 u1s12.21200.754 eV+1, -113.598 eVGas13.81K20.28K0.00008988 g/LNonmetal1766
2HeHelium4.0026 u1s2140024.587 eVGas0.95K4.22K0.0001785 g/LNoble gas1868
3LiLithium7 u[He]2s10.981820.618 eV15.392 eVSolid453.65K1615K0.534 g/LAlkali metal1817
4BeBeryllium9.012183 u[He]2s21.5715329.323 eVSolid1560K2744K1.85 g/LAlkaline earth metal1798
5BBoron10.81 u[He]2s2 2p12.041920.277 eV38.298 eVSolid2348K4273K2.37 g/LMetalloid1808
6CCarbon12.011 u[He]2s2 2p22.551701.263 eV+4, +2, -411.26 eVSolid3823K4098K2.267 g/LNonmetalAncient
7NNitrogen14.007 u[He] 2s2 2p33.04155+5, +4, +3, +2, +1, -1, -2, -314.534 eVGas63.15K77.36K0.0012506 g/LNonmetal1772
8OOxygen15.999 u[He]2s2 2p43.441521.461 eV-213.618 eVGas54.36K90.2K0.001429 g/LNonmetal1774
9FFluorine18.99840316 u[He]2s2 2p53.981353.339 eV-117.423 eVGas53.53K85.03K0.001696 g/LHalogen1670
10NeNeon20.18 u[He]2s2 2p6154021.565 eVGas24.56K27.07K0.0008999 g/LNoble gas1898
11NaSodium22.9897693 u[Ne]3s10.932270.548 eV15.139 eVSolid370.95K1156K0.97 g/LAlkali metal1807
12MgMagnesium24.305 u[Ne]3s21.3117327.646 eVSolid923K1363K1.74 g/LAlkaline earth metal1808
13AlAluminum26.981538 u[Ne]3s2 3p11.611840.441 eV35.986 eVSolid933.437K2792K2.7 g/LPost-transition metalAncient
14SiSilicon28.085 u[Ne]3s2 3p21.92101.385 eV+4, +2, -48.152 eVSolid1687K3538K2.3296 g/LMetalloid1854
15PPhosphorus30.973762 u[Ne]3s2 3p32.191800.746 eV+5, +3, -310.487 eVSolid317.3K553.65K1.82 g/LNonmetal1669
16SSulfur32.07 u[Ne]3s2 3p42.581802.077 eV+6, +4, -210.36 eVSolid388.36K717.75K2.067 g/LNonmetalAncient
17ClChlorine35.45 u[Ne]3s2 3p53.161753.617 eV+7, +5, +1, -112.968 eVGas171.65K239.11K0.003214 g/LHalogen1774
18ArArgon39.9 u[Ne]3s2 3p6188015.76 eVGas83.8K87.3K0.0017837 g/LNoble gas1894
19KPotassium39.0983 u[Ar]4s10.822750.501 eV14.341 eVSolid336.53K1032K0.89 g/LAlkali metal1807
20CaCalcium40.08 u[Ar]4s2123126.113 eVSolid1115K1757K1.54 g/LAlkaline earth metalAncient
21ScScandium44.95591 u[Ar]4s2 3d11.362110.188 eV36.561 eVSolid1814K3109K2.99 g/LTransition metal1879
22TiTitanium47.867 u[Ar]4s2 3d21.541870.079 eV+4, +3, +26.828 eVSolid1941K3560K4.5 g/LTransition metal1791
23VVanadium50.9415 u[Ar]4s2 3d31.631790.525 eV+5, +4, +3, +26.746 eVSolid2183K3680K6 g/LTransition metal1801
24CrChromium51.996 u[Ar]3d5 4s11.661890.666 eV+6, +3, +26.767 eVSolid2180K2944K7.15 g/LTransition metal1797
25MnManganese54.93804 u[Ar]4s2 3d51.55197+7, +4, +3, +27.434 eVSolid1519K2334K7.3 g/LTransition metal1774
26FeIron55.84 u[Ar]4s2 3d61.831940.163 eV+3, +27.902 eVSolid1811K3134K7.874 g/LTransition metalAncient
27CoCobalt58.93319 u[Ar]4s2 3d71.881920.661 eV+3, +27.881 eVSolid1768K3200K8.86 g/LTransition metal1735
28NiNickel58.693 u[Ar]4s2 3d81.911631.156 eV+3, +27.64 eVSolid1728K3186K8.912 g/LTransition metal1751
29CuCopper63.55 u[Ar]4s1 3d101.91401.228 eV+2, +17.726 eVSolid1357.77K2835K8.933 g/LTransition metalAncient
30ZnZinc65.4 u[Ar]4s2 3d101.6513929.394 eVSolid692.68K1180K7.134 g/LTransition metal1746
31GaGallium69.723 u[Ar]4s2 3d10 4p11.811870.3 eV35.999 eVSolid302.91K2477K5.91 g/LPost-transition metal1875
32GeGermanium72.63 u[Ar]4s2 3d10 4p22.012111.35 eV+4, +27.9 eVSolid1211.4K3106K5.323 g/LMetalloid1886
33AsArsenic74.92159 u[Ar]4s2 3d10 4p32.181850.81 eV+5, +3, -39.815 eVSolid1090K887K5.776 g/LMetalloidAncient
34SeSelenium78.97 u[Ar]4s2 3d10 4p42.551902.021 eV+6, +4, -29.752 eVSolid493.65K958K4.809 g/LNonmetal1817
35BrBromine79.9 u[Ar]4s2 3d10 4p52.961833.365 eV+5, +1, -111.814 eVLiquid265.95K331.95K3.11 g/LHalogen1826
36KrKrypton83.8 u[Ar]4s2 3d10 4p63202014 eVGas115.79K119.93K0.003733 g/LNoble gas1898
37RbRubidium85.468 u[Kr]5s10.823030.468 eV14.177 eVSolid312.46K961K1.53 g/LAlkali metal1861
38SrStrontium87.62 u[Kr]5s20.9524925.695 eVSolid1050K1655K2.64 g/LAlkaline earth metal1790
39YYttrium88.90584 u[Kr]5s2 4d11.222190.307 eV36.217 eVSolid1795K3618K4.47 g/LTransition metal1794
40ZrZirconium91.22 u[Kr]5s2 4d21.331860.426 eV46.634 eVSolid2128K4682K6.52 g/LTransition metal1789
41NbNiobium92.90637 u[Kr]5s1 4d41.62070.893 eV+5, +36.759 eVSolid2750K5017K8.57 g/LTransition metal1801
42MoMolybdenum95.95 u[Kr]5s1 4d52.162090.746 eV67.092 eVSolid2896K4912K10.2 g/LTransition metal1778
43TcTechnetium96.90636 u[Kr]5s2 4d51.92090.55 eV+7, +6, +47.28 eVSolid2430K4538K11 g/LTransition metal1937
44RuRuthenium101.1 u[Kr]5s1 4d72.22071.05 eV37.361 eVSolid2607K4423K12.1 g/LTransition metal1827
45RhRhodium102.9055 u[Kr]5s1 4d82.281951.137 eV37.459 eVSolid2237K3968K12.4 g/LTransition metal1803
46PdPalladium106.42 u[Kr]4d102.22020.557 eV+3, +28.337 eVSolid1828.05K3236K12 g/LTransition metal1803
47AgSilver107.868 u[Kr]5s1 4d101.931721.302 eV17.576 eVSolid1234.93K2435K10.501 g/LTransition metalAncient
48CdCadmium112.41 u[Kr]5s2 4d101.6915828.994 eVSolid594.22K1040K8.69 g/LTransition metal1817
49InIndium114.818 u[Kr]5s2 4d10 5p11.781930.3 eV35.786 eVSolid429.75K2345K7.31 g/LPost-transition metal1863
50SnTin118.71 u[Kr]5s2 4d10 5p21.962171.2 eV+4, +27.344 eVSolid505.08K2875K7.287 g/LPost-transition metalAncient
51SbAntimony121.76 u[Kr]5s2 4d10 5p32.052061.07 eV+5, +3, -38.64 eVSolid903.78K1860K6.685 g/LMetalloidAncient
52TeTellurium127.6 u[Kr]5s2 4d10 5p42.12061.971 eV+6, +4, -29.01 eVSolid722.66K1261K6.232 g/LMetalloid1782
53IIodine126.9045 u[Kr]5s2 4d10 5p52.661983.059 eV+7, +5, +1, -110.451 eVSolid386.85K457.55K4.93 g/LHalogen1811
54XeXenon131.29 u[Kr]5s2 4d10 5p62.6216012.13 eVGas161.36K165.03K0.005887 g/LNoble gas1898
55CsCesium132.905452 u[Xe]6s10.793430.472 eV13.894 eVSolid301.59K944K1.93 g/LAlkali metal1860
56BaBarium137.33 u[Xe]6s20.8926825.212 eVSolid1000K2170K3.62 g/LAlkaline earth metal1808
57LaLanthanum138.9055 u[Xe]6s2 5d11.12400.5 eV35.577 eVSolid1191K3737K6.15 g/LLanthanide1839
58CeCerium140.116 u[Xe]6s2 4f1 5d11.122350.5 eV+4, +35.539 eVSolid1071K3697K6.77 g/LLanthanide1803
59PrPraseodymium140.90766 u[Xe]6s2 4f31.1323935.464 eVSolid1204K3793K6.77 g/LLanthanide1885
60NdNeodymium144.24 u[Xe]6s2 4f41.1422935.525 eVSolid1294K3347K7.01 g/LLanthanide1885
61PmPromethium144.91276 u[Xe]6s2 4f523635.55 eVSolid1315K3273K7.26 g/LLanthanide1945
62SmSamarium150.4 u[Xe]6s2 4f61.17229+3, +25.644 eVSolid1347K2067K7.52 g/LLanthanide1879
63EuEuropium151.964 u[Xe]6s2 4f7233+3, +25.67 eVSolid1095K1802K5.24 g/LLanthanide1901
64GdGadolinium157.2 u[Xe]6s2 4f7 5d11.223736.15 eVSolid1586K3546K7.9 g/LLanthanide1880
65TbTerbium158.92535 u[Xe]6s2 4f922135.864 eVSolid1629K3503K8.23 g/LLanthanide1843
66DyDysprosium162.5 u[Xe]6s2 4f101.2222935.939 eVSolid1685K2840K8.55 g/LLanthanide1886
67HoHolmium164.93033 u[Xe]6s2 4f111.2321636.022 eVSolid1747K2973K8.8 g/LLanthanide1878
68ErErbium167.26 u[Xe]6s2 4f121.2423536.108 eVSolid1802K3141K9.07 g/LLanthanide1843
69TmThulium168.93422 u[Xe]6s2 4f131.2522736.184 eVSolid1818K2223K9.32 g/LLanthanide1879
70YbYtterbium173.05 u[Xe]6s2 4f14242+3, +26.254 eVSolid1092K1469K6.9 g/LLanthanide1878
71LuLutetium174.9668 u[Xe]6s2 4f14 5d11.2722135.426 eVSolid1936K3675K9.84 g/LLanthanide1907
72HfHafnium178.49 u[Xe]6s2 4f14 5d21.321246.825 eVSolid2506K4876K13.3 g/LTransition metal1923
73TaTantalum180.9479 u[Xe]6s2 4f14 5d31.52170.322 eV57.89 eVSolid3290K5731K16.4 g/LTransition metal1802
74WTungsten183.84 u[Xe]6s2 4f14 5d42.362100.815 eV67.98 eVSolid3695K5828K19.3 g/LTransition metal1783
75ReRhenium186.207 u[Xe]6s2 4f14 5d51.92170.15 eV+7, +6, +47.88 eVSolid3459K5869K20.8 g/LTransition metal1925
76OsOsmium190.2 u[Xe]6s2 4f14 5d62.22161.1 eV+4, +38.7 eVSolid3306K5285K22.57 g/LTransition metal1803
77IrIridium192.22 u[Xe]6s2 4f14 5d72.22021.565 eV+4, +39.1 eVSolid2719K4701K22.42 g/LTransition metal1803
78PtPlatinum195.08 u[Xe]6s1 4f14 5d92.282092.128 eV+4, +29 eVSolid2041.55K4098K21.46 g/LTransition metal1735
79AuGold196.96657 u[Xe]6s1 4f14 5d102.541662.309 eV+3, +19.226 eVSolid1337.33K3129K19.282 g/LTransition metalAncient
80HgMercury200.59 u[Xe]6s2 4f14 5d102209+2, +110.438 eVLiquid234.32K629.88K13.5336 g/LTransition metalAncient
81TlThallium204.383 u[Xe]6s2 4f14 5d10 6p11.621960.2 eV+3, +16.108 eVSolid577K1746K11.8 g/LPost-transition metal1861
82PbLead207 u[Xe]6s2 4f14 5d10 6p22.332020.36 eV+4, +27.417 eVSolid600.61K2022K11.342 g/LPost-transition metalAncient
83BiBismuth208.9804 u[Xe]6s2 4f14 5d10 6p32.022070.946 eV+5, +37.289 eVSolid544.55K1837K9.807 g/LPost-transition metal1753
84PoPolonium208.98243 u[Xe]6s2 4f14 5d10 6p421971.9 eV+4, +28.417 eVSolid527K1235K9.32 g/LMetalloid1898
85AtAstatine209.98715 u[Xe]6s2 4f14 5d10 6p52.22022.8 eV7, 5, 3, 1, -19.5 eVSolid575K7 g/LHalogen1940
86RnRadon222.01758 u[Xe]6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6220010.745 eVGas202K211.45K0.00973 g/LNoble gas1900
87FrFrancium223.01973 u[Rn]7s10.73480.47 eV13.9 eVSolid300KAlkali metal1939
88RaRadium226.02541 u[Rn]7s20.928325.279 eVSolid973K1413K5 g/LAlkaline earth metal1898
89AcActinium227.02775 u[Rn]7s2 6d11.126035.17 eVSolid1324K3471K10.07 g/LActinide1899
90ThThorium232.038 u[Rn]7s2 6d21.323746.08 eVSolid2023K5061K11.72 g/LActinide1828
91PaProtactinium231.03588 u[Rn]7s2 5f2 6d11.5243+5, +45.89 eVSolid1845K15.37 g/LActinide1913
92UUranium238.0289 u[Rn]7s2 5f3 6d11.38240+6, +5, +4, +36.194 eVSolid1408K4404K18.95 g/LActinide1789
93NpNeptunium237.048172 u[Rn]7s2 5f4 6d11.36221+6, +5, +4, +36.266 eVSolid917K4175K20.25 g/LActinide1940
94PuPlutonium244.0642 u[Rn]7s2 5f61.28243+6, +5, +4, +36.06 eVSolid913K3501K19.84 g/LActinide1940
95AmAmericium243.06138 u[Rn]7s2 5f71.3244+6, +5, +4, +35.993 eVSolid1449K2284K13.69 g/LActinide1944
96CmCurium247.07035 u[Rn]7s2 5f7 6d11.324536.02 eVSolid1618K3400K13.51 g/LActinide1944
97BkBerkelium247.07031 u[Rn]7s2 5f91.3244+4, +36.23 eVSolid1323K14 g/LActinide1949
98CfCalifornium251.07959 u[Rn]7s2 5f101.324536.3 eVSolid1173KActinide1950
99EsEinsteinium252.083 u[Rn]7s2 5f111.324536.42 eVSolid1133KActinide1952
100FmFermium257.09511 u[Rn] 5f12 7s21.336.5 eVSolid1800KActinide1952
101MdMendelevium258.09843 u[Rn]7s2 5f131.3+3, +26.58 eVSolid1100KActinide1955
102NoNobelium259.101 u[Rn]7s2 5f141.3+3, +26.65 eVSolid1100KActinide1957
103LrLawrencium266.12 u[Rn]7s2 5f14 6d11.33Solid1900KActinide1961
104RfRutherfordium267.122 u[Rn]7s2 5f14 6d24SolidTransition metal1964
105DbDubnium268.126 u[Rn]7s2 5f14 6d35, 4, 3SolidTransition metal1967
106SgSeaborgium269.128 u[Rn]7s2 5f14 6d46, 5, 4, 3, 0SolidTransition metal1974
107BhBohrium270.133 u[Rn]7s2 5f14 6d57, 5, 4, 3SolidTransition metal1976
108HsHassium269.1336 u[Rn]7s2 5f14 6d68, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2SolidTransition metal1984
109MtMeitnerium277.154 u[Rn]7s2 5f14 6d7 (calculated)9, 8, 6, 4, 3, 1SolidTransition metal1982
110DsDarmstadtium282.166 u[Rn]7s2 5f14 6d8 (predicted)8, 6, 4, 2, 0Expected to be a SolidTransition metal1994
111RgRoentgenium282.169 u[Rn]7s2 5f14 6d9 (predicted)5, 3, 1, -1Expected to be a SolidTransition metal1994
112CnCopernicium286.179 u[Rn]7s2 5f14 6d10 (predicted)2, 1, 0Expected to be a SolidTransition metal1996
113NhNihonium286.182 u[Rn]5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (predicted)Expected to be a SolidPost-transition metal2004
114FlFlerovium290.192 u[Rn]7s2 7p2 5f14 6d10 (predicted)6, 4,2, 1, 0Expected to be a SolidPost-transition metal1998
115McMoscovium290.196 u[Rn]7s2 7p3 5f14 6d10 (predicted)3, 1Expected to be a SolidPost-transition metal2003
116LvLivermorium293.205 u[Rn]7s2 7p4 5f14 6d10 (predicted)+4, +2, -2Expected to be a SolidPost-transition metal2000
117TsTennessine294.211 u[Rn]7s2 7p5 5f14 6d10 (predicted)+5, +3, +1, -1Expected to be a SolidHalogen2010
118OgOganesson295.216 u[Rn]7s2 7p6 5f14 6d10 (predicted)+6, +4, +2, +1, 0, -1Expected to be a GasNoble gas2006

You can find the comprehensive details of Modern Periodic law here.


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